Question: How do you upgrade from GP 2010 build 2390 to GP 2013 R2
Answer: The documentation from Microsoft that delineates the upgrade path from GP 2010 to GP 2013 R2 is missing the current build of GP 2010 (as of 3/16/2015). The document from Microsoft can be found here: https://mbs.microsoft.com/partnersource/northamerica/support/hot-topics/HOT_TOPIC_MDGP2013Upgrade#UpgradePaths.
The line missing is how to upgrade to GP 2013 R2 from 11.00.2390. The answer is that you have to upgrade to 12.00.1826. The build numbers for both GP 2010 and GP 2013 R2 are achieved after installing the January 2015 Hotfix. Thanks go out to Paul Degneau, at Standard Process www.Standardprocess.com, for suggesting this to me.